A progression framework is a document designed to help understand what the career progression opportunities are within an organisation.
Originally known as a career ladder or a career pathway, progression frameworks have become popular as rather than showing one route to success, they plot out all the available options in the organisation.
They allow someone to see where their skills could take them within the business, or what skills they need to develop in order to be able to do a new role.
Each framework is made up of the different possible roles within a business, and a set of expected skills or competencies associated with each role.
Basic Product Management framework
Progression frameworks are sometimes known as growth frameworks as the idea is to grow your skills such that you can move through the positions in the framework.
In the example of the simple product team framework above, the entry level role of Associate Product Manager requires level 1 of Communication "Communicates effectively with immediate peers" whereas the Product Manager role requires Level 2 "Communicates with wider team, feeds back on communication of others"
From this you can see where you need your skills to get to, to be in a position to take on a bigger role, or to be able to perform in your current role to a higher standard.